Friday, March 13, 2015

Weekend Rebel Science Excursion - 40

Enceladus is a moon of Saturn (click photo to enlarge)
I. Introduction

"TGIF" as they say, so let's talk some science.

I want to fuse the subject matter of several series with recent scientific developments.

A paper in the journal Nature has been talked about in the science press, a paper which presents evidence and argument that there is a hot ocean underneath the surface of a moon of Saturn, i.e., under the surface of Enceladus (Researchers Think There's A Warm Ocean On Enceladus).

I want to tie this in with the EPH (Exploded Planet Hypothesis, Weekend Rebel Science Excursion, Weekend Rebel Science Excursion - 11) and the nature of our civilization (Civilization Is Now On Suicide Watch), compared with the Tenets of Ecocosmology.

II. Civilizations in Space with Dyson Grids

Let's begin by considering a scale that describes hypothetical evolution of civilizations, in terms of a civilization's use of energy (Kardashev Scale).

Now, let's add to that the hypothesis of a civilization using a Dyson Grid or Sphere to harness solar energy in a way not commonly considered (Wikipedia: Dyson Sphere).

One Dredd Blog extension, or addition, to the EPH (The Challenge of the Exploded Planet Hypothesis, Cambridge Journals Online, International Journal of Astrobiology / Volume 6 / Issue 03 / July 2007, pp 185-197) is that there are remains of the structure of a Dyson Grid or Sphere still visible in our solar system (Saturn - Home of the Hexagon Mystery, Saturn Hexagon Mystifies Scientists).

Cosmologists and astronomers use the word "bombardment" to describe what made craters and did destruction on planets throughout our solar system  (e.g. early and late bombardment).

Note that "bombardment" and "exploded" go together.

III. What Could Go Wrong?

Civilizations on Earth have not been free from lethal mistakes, and in fact lethal mistakes are the rule rather than the exception according to a noted historian:
"In other words, a society does not ever die 'from natural causes', but always dies from suicide or murder --- and nearly always from the former, as this chapter has shown."
(A Study of History,  by Arnold J. Toynbee). So, let's consider a hypothetical mistake of an earlier civilization on a planet that exploded not too far from here, as a result of that lethal mistake.

I am talking about a planet between Mars and Jupiter, where only a debris field (a.k.a. asteroid belt) remains now.

It is a debris field being studied by the Dawn spacecraft even as we blog (Dawn Mission Nears Ceres Orbit Maneuvers).

So, to answer the question the title of this section asks, one thing that could go wrong is that a Dyson Grid or Sphere could malfunction.

Such a vast structure handles so much energy that a malfunction could be catastrophic.

Let's go figure.

IV. Some EPH Factors We Can Test

One of the expectations or assertions of the EPH is that Enceladus (like Vesta) is a chunk of the planet that exploded.

Enceladus, the hypothesis goes, contains among other things, some remnants and remains of that planet's ocean.

Outer layers of that water are now frozen over, except that, as mentioned above in the new paper (Nature: Ongoing hydrothermal activities within Enceladus), under the thick ice at the south pole is liquid ocean water, and some of it is hot.

How do we test that in terms of the EPH?

We can go back to the hypothesis of cosmologists that the planets and their moons are condensations of the dust cloud which eventually formed planets and the Sun (On the Origin of the Genes of Viruses - 8) "around 4.5 billion years ago".

We can also use what we know about Enceladus to calculate the amount of water there, and then calculate how long it would take to lose / eject that water into space.

V. Some Calculations

Let's begin with a statement from the paper published in Nature and linked to in section IV above:
"Gravitational field measurements suggest a regional south polar subsurface ocean of about 10 kilometres thickness located beneath an ice crust 30 to 40 kilometres thick."
(ibid, paper in journal Nature). It is interesting to note that the "regional south polar subsurface ocean" water is not uniform, in that, it is mostly at the south pole.

That indicates an abnormality which would be expected in the helter skelter debris of a planetary explosion.

Let's try to calculate the amount of water there, the amount that has been ejected, and how far backward and forward in time that ocean could hold water.
Fig. 1 (ocean water & ice cap @ South Pole)

The first thing we need to do is to calculate the volume of water in that south polar ocean, and in the ice cap.

Then we will calculate how long it would take for that water to be ejected into space to make Saturn’s E ring, to finally exhaust all water, and ultimately, how that comports with the theory of the formation of Enceladus some 4.5 billion years ago (or to the contrary to conform to when the planet exploded to eject its pieces into space).

Fig. 2 (concept of ice & water on Enceladus)
We will begin by calculating the volume of the ice layer.

This we do by calculating the whole volume of Enceladus, then calculating the volume of a sphere 40 km smaller (assume the ice layer is 40 km thick).

When subtracting the difference between the two, we derive the volume of the ice layer.

Hence: V = 4/3 π r3 [sphere volume]
V = 4/3 * 3.14 * 2523
V = 4/3 * 3.14 * 16003008
V = 1.33 * 50249445.12
V = 66,831,762 cu. km.
(now for the smaller sphere)
Fig. 3 (hot ocean water venting into space)
V = 4/3 π r3 [sphere volume]
V = 4/3 * 3.14 * 2123
V = 4/3 * 3.14 * 9528128
V = 1.33 * 29918321.92
V = 39,791,368 cu. km.

Now we can subtract the smaller sphere's volume from the larger sphere's volume to derive Enceladus' ice layer volume to be 27,040,394 cu. km. (66,831,762 cu. km. - 39,791,368 cu. km.).

To calculate the volume of water in the subsurface southern polar ocean, we use the following formula applied to the smaller sphere, to derive:
V = (π/3)H2(3R - H)  [cap of a sphere, Fig. 1]
V = (3.14/3)102(3*212 - 10)
V = (1.05)*100*(3*202)
V = (105)*(606)
V =  63,630 cu. km.

Now, we calculate the ejection of water into space which, among other things, forms Saturn’s E ring.

We can do this roughly by using a formula we have already used to calculate water hypothetically already vented from the asteroid Vesta in the debris field:
The violent ejections marked those strata with the "holes that were left as the water escaped" which after all these billions of years, still "stretch as much as 0.6 miles (1 kilometer) across and go down as deep as 700 feet (200 meters)."

For illustration only, the amount of water to fill just one of those cone shaped surface vents would be:
vent diameter = 1 kilometer (3280.8 ft)
radius (r) = 3280.8 / 2
r = ~1640 ft

height (h) = 700 feet

cone volume formula: v = 1/3 * 3.14 * r2 * h

v = .33 * 3.14 * 2,689,600 * 700

v = 1,950,874,464 ft3

assume there are 7.48 gallons of water per ft3

water in cone = 1,950,874,464 ft3 / 7.48 ft3

gallons of water = ~260,812,094 gal (for 1 vent)
I don't think meteorites would have the volume of water to cause such focused, and violent ejections to make cone-shaped vents a kilometer across and 700 feet deep, because among other things, the meteorite types with the most water are carbonaceous chondrite types, having 3% - 22% water by weight.
(Weekend Rebel Science Excursion - 11).  The use of the venting calculations in that post about Vesta helped to see that at least one venting hypothesis was unlikely in the case of Vesta (which is part of the debris field).

VI. Let's Vent

Figure 3 is an illustration of the venting taking place on Enceladus.

Six or seven vents are shown ejecting water from the subsurface southern ocean into
Fig. 4 Saturn's E-ring (click graphic to enlarge)
the space around Enceladus (which makes Saturn's E ring).

The 63,630 cu. km. in the subsurface ocean is 35,313,378,458 cu. ft. of water (63,630 * 3280.83 * 7.48), or 264,144,070,866 gallons (264,144,070,866 ÷ 260,812,094 [RE vent cone on Vesta] = 1012.8).

If the water began to vent a billion years ago, that equates to a loss of only 264 gallons a year, or only 132 gallons a year at 2 billion years ago (before the ocean is completely emptied into space).

Our solar system, and (supposedly) this moon are said to have formed some 4.5 billion years ago.

If the EPH planet exploded only 5 million years ago, that would mean a venting of  52,829 gallons a year, or if 2.5 million years ago, then 105,658 gallons a year.

All those numbers seem unlikely (way too small, see Fig. 4), so the outer ice layer must be melting into the ocean because of the heat, and replenishing the water (so as to allow venting of water for a much, much longer time).

In other words, the ice and water on Enceladus is evidently melting away, and will do so at least until the core heat goes away, or ultimately all the ice and water is gone.

This shows that Enceladus has not been there for 4.5 billion years, nor anything close to that (millions of years is more likely).

VII. Conclusion

An exploded planet about 1-3 million years ago, or maybe 65 mya @ KT-boundary Fifth Mass Extinction, or some other explanation, would seem to be more likely origins of Enceladus than any hypothetical origin 4.5 billion years ago.

One can only wonder how long it will take for Enceladus to look like Vesta.

Any suggestions or corrections?

Have a good weekend.

Thursday, March 12, 2015

Tweeter Man's Enigma & The Money Monkey

Dyson Grid?

by Pablo Neruda

You've asked me what the lobster is weaving there with
his golden feet?

I reply, the ocean knows this.

You say, what is the ascidia waiting for in its transparent
bell? What is it waiting for?

I tell you it is waiting for time, like you.

You ask me whom the Macrocystis alga hugs in its arms?

Study, study it, at a certain hour, in a certain sea I know.

You question me about the wicked tusk of the narwhal,
and I reply by describing
how the sea unicorn with the harpoon in it dies.

You enquire about the kingfisher's feathers,
which tremble in the pure springs of the southern tides?

Or you've found in the cards a new question touching on
the crystal architecture
of the sea anemone, and you'll deal that to me now?
You want to understand the electric nature of the ocean
The armored stalactite that breaks as it walks?
The hook of the angler fish, the music stretched out
in the deep places like a thread in the water?

I want to tell you the ocean knows this, that life in its
jewel boxes
is endless as the sand, impossible to count, pure,
and among the blood-colored grapes time has made the
hard and shiny, made the jellyfish full of light
and untied its knot, letting its musical threads fall
from a horn of plenty made of infinite mother-of-pearl.

I am nothing but the empty net which has gone on ahead
of human eyes, dead in those darknesses,
of fingers accustomed to the triangle, longitudes
on the timid globe of an orange.

I walked around as you do, investigating
the endless star,
and in my net, during the night, I woke up naked,
the only thing caught, a fish trapped inside the wind.

Wednesday, March 11, 2015

Oil-Qaeda: The Indictment - 5

The Spirit of Victims has awakened

I'm Looking Through You
by The Beatles

I'm looking through you, where did you go?
I thought I knew you, what did I know?
You don't look different, but you have changed
I'm looking through you, you're not the same

Your lips are moving, I cannot hear
Your voice is soothing, but the words aren't clear
You don't sound different, I've learned the game
I'm looking through you, you're not the same

Why, tell me why, did you not treat me right?
Love has a nasty habit of disappearing overnight

You're thinking of me, the same old way
You were above me, but not today
The only difference is you're down there
I'm looking through you, and you're nowhere

Why, tell me why, did you not treat me right?
Love has a nasty habit of disappearing overnight

I'm looking through you, where did you go
I thought I knew you, what did I know
You don't look different, but you have changed
I'm looking through you, you're not the same

Oil-Qaeda Cell In U.S.A.

Oh baby I'm changed
Ah I'm looking through you
Yeah I'm looking through you

Oil-Qaeda, the Mass-Murder-Suicide Pact operatives (MOMCOM's Mass Suicide & Murder Pact, 2, 3, 4, 5) of the establishment terrorist cell in America, have been "found out" (Unlike Temperatures, Climate Change Deniers Are Falling Fast).

Their religious senator (Inhofe's One Man Troofiness Crusade) was voted biggest liar of 2014 by the Victims (Wee The People, 2, 3).

Our government, being a front for the epigovernment, of which Oil-Qaeda is a prominent member, can not and/or will not, do anything about it (The Elections of Pontius Pilots, 2, 3, 4, 5).

The next post in this series is here, the previous post in this series is here.

"I'm Looking Through You", by The Wallflowers


Tuesday, March 10, 2015

A Look Back In Time

Today, let's look at some flashbacks to Dredd Blog posts of yesteryear.

Because, some cultural trances have been ongoing for hundreds of years.

Others, not so long.

So, sometimes it is quite amazing to notice that what others say about history ends up being true:

"History repeats itself, and that's one of the things that's wrong with history." - Clarence Darrow

On this date in 2009:

I Thought It Was A Play, A Skit, Not Real

The church attendees, when the pastor was shot dead directly in front of their eyes in the midst of their church, were amused at first.

It was entertainment in their view.

Where is the popcorn?

"Way cool, the powers that be are pretending that the pastor is being shot so we can see what it is really like," they mused inside their own shocked and awed minds:
... members of the congregation initially thought the attack was part of a play being performed during the service at First Baptist Church in Maryville ...
(Scotsman). Why is our mind seemingly not able to grasp reality sometimes? Why is reality something we must struggle to grasp?

Several professional journalists experienced the exact same phenomenon when they saw planes crash into skyscrapers in New York on September 11, 2001.

At times when the shock of reality hits us we are so unfamiliar with it that we cease to function in reality. Our personal operating system crashes.

The amount of time we are down while we reboot or reset varies from person to person, nation to nation.

Remember the reset button Secretary of State Clinton gave the Russian government official? Other US government officials, including VP Biden, lately are also saying that we need to reset after the Bush II regime did something to us.

The writers and directors of the movie The Matrix exposed or articulated upon this phenomenon with the expansive exaggeration technique.

Like a magnifying glass which makes a picture big enough for anyone to see, the film crew showed how far away from us reality can become.

The reality of the propagandised war on terror was out of reach of the Bush II administration, as recently released memos have shown those who can see at that magnification level.

President Obama has ordered a reset and return to the use of the investigative agencies Americans have traditionally used to target and handle those planning violence against others within the United States.

The wild and paranoid gyrations of the Bush II regime that eventually contemplated and activated spying on Americans and planned using the military against Americans was as far from reality as it gets.

Recently a man was found who had been planning a dirty bomb from materials he had purchased within the US. Why go to Nigeria? The international spy mechanisms of the NSA did not catch him:
Trust fund millionaire James G. Cummings, an American Nazi sympathizer from Maine who was slain by his wife Amber in December, allegedly had the radioactive components necessary to construct a "dirty bomb," a newly released threat analysis report states.

The man, allegedly furious over the election of President Obama, purchased depleted uranium over the Internet from an American company.
(Raw Story, emphasis added). His wife is saying she was driven crazy. Well, he was driven crazy by hate speech himself was he not?

We have complained here that some who call themselves progressives are driving themselves and others crazy with hate speech. We are correct.

We have had a war of deceit against us since about the time of WW I according to an article we posted here. We have a lot of work to do to reset ourselves.

On this date in 2010:

Netanscrewyou vs. Peace Process & USA

When a government official is visiting your country, it is not appropriate to dis that official's country flagrantly in public view.

Israel decided to go rogue and get all mavericky with that protocol while the Vice President was there.

The brain-dead warmongers of that government decided to stick another knife in the back of the peace process, and announce that Israel would do additional provocative building in the disputed areas.

Biden is not a lightweight in foreign policy, and did some embarrassing of his own on behalf of the United States:
In an apparent snub Tuesday night, Biden pointedly arrived 90 minutes late to his scheduled dinner with Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu and he sharply rebuked the Israeli step — which came just after the Palestinians agreed to a new round of indirect peace talks under U.S. mediation after a 14-month lapse.

"The substance and timing of the announcement, particularly with the launching of proximity talks, is precisely the kind of step that undermines the trust we need right now," Biden said.

"We must build an atmosphere to support negotiations, not complicate them," he added, warning that "unilateral action taken by either party cannot prejudge the outcome of negotiations."
(MSNBC; See also BBC). It was the sorta "eye for an eye" thingy that the macho freaks in that government understand whether they like it or not.

Good one Joe.

"Waiting For The World To Change", by John Mayer

Monday, March 9, 2015

Doing The Right Thing - Mithraism - 3

Mithra kills the bull while wearing a mini-skirt
There are several Dredd Blog series, besides this one, that present posts which deal with the strange phenomenon of Mithraism.

These are some of them: On The Origin of the Crusader Pathogen, Another Holy Day For Modern Ancient Mithraism, On The Origin of The Bully Religion, The Virgin MOMCOM - 6.

Today, I want to discuss another example where American Mithraism shows through the thin veneer, to once again expose itself (because currently there are two Mithraic cults which are a danger to civilization, and even a danger to the human species itself).

The one cult is fake Islam, while the other is fake Christianity in America.

Those two cults are both "pure" Mithraism.

Recently, both President Obama and Pope Francis alluded to that reality, when they explained that there are those who associate themselves with both "Christianity" and "Islam," but who are neither.

Since this post deals with the ones calling themselves "Christian," let's start off with this quote from one who calls himself a previous fundie:
"... here’s where Dr. Beckum got himself into some serious problems: he wasn’t speaking about listening to rock and roll or wearing skirts that weren’t knee high– he was talking about the golden calf of American Christianity. He went on to say,
“Anyone who has made a decision to follow Jesus realizes that the goal of a being a Christian is to become Christ-like.”
Sounds good so far, but starting to get edgy with this Jesus-likeness stuff. But here’s where he went completely off the rails:
“I am extremely troubled. I have been for a long time and I have hesitated to address this subject publicly, but I cannot keep silent about it any longer … I don’t think it is an under-statement to say that our culture is addicted to violence, guns, war, revenge and retaliation. Unfortunately, so are a lot of Christians… So, what does Jesus have to say about it. Again, if you are not a follower of Jesus you can relax. This doesn’t concern you. But Christians have to do something with this. I have to do something with the words of Jesus and his actions… We have to be very careful about equating patriotism with Christianity. We never say God and … anything. God is above all, everything else is underneath … We have put “our way of life”/ freedom on the top rung. If you mess with it I’ll blow your head off. For a Christian what is on the top rung? Love for all."
Dr. Beckum ended his sermon by reminding the students that not only did Jesus teach radical enemy love, but that we should serve them, and forgive them as well.

In many Christian circles you can talk about the Bible all you want, a you can speak as much Christianese as possible, but as Dr. Beckum has now learned, you cannot talk about what Jesus taught regarding enemy love. That is off-limits and heresy.
The best way to understand the cultural scenario is to realize ... that there
Mithra shoots the shit out of stuff
are two different types of Christianity. One is a movement of people who want to live and be like Jesus. The other (and far more common, far more powerful) is a civil and political religion that is simply named Christianity. The civil political religion named Christianity is addicted to both political power and violence, and thus finds the message of Jesus offensive. When they encounter the other kind of Christian- the kind that actually believes in following Jesus- they have an immediate need to persecute them in some for or another, as we see in the case of Dr. Beckum, who actually did lose his job because of speaking the name of Jesus.
(Formerly Fundie, emphasis added). That religious worship of war (as this Dredd Blog series, and some others mentioned above, point out) is Mithraism posing as Christianity and/or Islam as it has for thousands of years.

Another place where "the two religions divide" is climate change (Officialdom bans use of term "climate change" & "global warming"; cf. Global Warming / Climate Change Will Generate Dangerous Religion).

The priests of the dogma "God is killing billions with global climate change so he can save them" are at odds with the scientists, and with Pope Francis (Inhofe's One Man Troofiness Crusade).

Not that those who suffer from Agnotology care or even understand (Agnotology: The Surge - 16).

Like Tina Turner sang, "What's love got to do with it?"

The next post in this series is here, the previous post in this series is here.

The Christian sermon by Dr. Randy Beckum (Transcript of Dr. Beckum's Sermon), which caused the Mithra worshippers to become revengeful:

Sunday, March 8, 2015

Will This Float Your Boat - 6

Sea level rise is real.
The calculation of how, when, and why Sea Level Rise (SLR) takes place is easy to assume, but it is best done by using existing data, while realizing that "climate change" means that the data will change as the climate changes.

In other words, don't make projections of the climate by expecting the same history we have now to show up as the climate of the future.

Sea level rise was discussed in the last post of this series with existing data, projecting those data into the future, but, not assuming the same rate of SLR.

In other words, acceleration of the percent of SLR.

I want to fine tune that in this post, by applying various acceleration rates to various sections of Greenland and West Antarctica, projecting acceleration of melt, and therefore SLR, based on sections or zones in those locations that are substantially different.

In other words, I will be applying a faster acceleration where appropriate, but also applying a slower acceleration rate where appropriate.

The map of Greenland (Fig. 1) for example, shows these hypothetical sections or zones where different melt quantities take place.

Those sections or zones are labelled "Coastal", "Inland1", "Inland2", and "No Melt".

The lines depicting them are not to exact scale (the ice sheet varies in thickness, so the lines which outline those zones illustrate a contemplation of quantity of ice, not quantity of land).
Fig. 1 Click on map to Enlarge

Accordingly, the rate-of-melt graph (Fig. 3) is based on the ongoing melt of the Greenland and West Antarctica ice sheets, graphed according to the individual melt rate of those zones.

Remember that the fundamental basis or cause, of the melt acceleration values, derive from our current knowledge.

We know that a combined 500 km3 (500 cubic kilometers) of ice is lost to melt each year (75% Greenland / 25% W. Antarctica).

That amount was determined by CryoSat-2, a satellite that has one mission.

That mission is to measure the ice volume of Greenland and West Antarctica, which allows us to determine the rate of melt as the ice sheet volume decreases over time (see the previous post in this series here).

In the software that generates the graph (Fig. 3), I have added a list of acceleration rates as follows: coastal = 0.1487, inland1 = 0.10, inland2 = 0.0437, and insignificant = 0.0408), which relate to the stages of melt, proceeding from fast melt zones such as "Coastal," on to the "No Melt" zone ("No Melt" means not melting prior to 2100 in any significant amount).

As CryoSat-2 informs us of further changes, or the regions or zones are better understood, all I have to do is change those values in the software, then regenerate the graph.

For Greenland, (Fig. 1) 21.49 ft. is the maximum global SLR if all ice melts, and the sections or zones are as follows:
No Melt = 8.596 ft. SLR (40% of total ice sheet)
Inland2 = 6.447 ft. SLR (30% of total ice sheet)
Inland1 = 4.298 ft. SLR (20% of total ice sheet)
Coastal = 2.149 ft. SLR (10% of total ice sheet)
Fig. 2 Click on map to Enlarge
The "Coastal" zone is the fastest melting, with a potential SLR of 2.149 ft., constituting 10% of the total ice sheet.

The hardest to melt, the "No Melt" zone, furthest from the coast, is estimated to be 40% of the total ice sheet.

For W. Antarctica, (Fig. 2) 26.44 ft. is the maximum global SLR if all ice there melts.

The sections or zones are:
No Melt = 10.576 ft. SLR (40% of total ice sheet)
Inland2 = 7.932 ft. SLR (30% of total ice sheet)
Inland1 = 5.288 ft. SLR (20% of total ice sheet)
Coastal = 2.644 ft. SLR (10% of total ice sheet)
Note that for both polar ice sheets, the "ft. SLR" values represent the potential global SLR from each zone, if all ice melts in that particular zone.

The percentages for both ice sheets concern near term melt, which is defined as taking place now, as well as taking place before 2100.

Fig. 3 Click on graph to Enlarge
The combined values concept on the graph (green line) represents the actual total melt taking place currently in both places when added together.

Obviously Greenland and W. Antarctica are both melting at the same time, now, but it is not so obvious that they are melting under very different circumstances and rates for SLR generation.

Currently, the ice melt rate (500 km3) is based on volume of ice melt in Greenland (375 km3) and Antarctica (125 km3) which shows that Greenland is melting much faster.

That will change and is changing as the Coastal ice diminishes, and the slower melting zones kick in.

For example, the graph shows Greenland's coastal (fast melt zone) ice melting by about 2048, the same year it shows total sea level rise reaching three feet (decades before the IPCC projected date of ~2100), while W. Antarctica is still in the coastal-ice-melt phase (20 Big U.S. Cities that Should Worry About Sea Level Rise).

The 75% / 25% ratio will become 50% / 50% and later 25% / 75% over time.

In conclusion, I realize that the amounts of today's post are not the same as the previous post.

There are more zones and more rates in the software now, and today's graph does not extend all the way out to 2100 as the previous ones did.

No need to, because the SLR shown in Fig. 3 is a warning and wake-up call for coastal cities in the sense that an SLR of 2-3 ft. by 2044-48 means a severe crisis, and they know it (cf. Scientific American).

The surge mentioned in the previous post, which happened near NYC, is another red flag, because it is another indication that unexpected developments can take place "quickly."

So, I have made the software flexible enough to stumble along with surprises as they take place.

All suggestions appreciated.

The next post in this series is here, the previous post in this series is here.